小学英语期末复习要点知识汇总
来源: | 作者: | 时间:2017-12-15 | 浏览  | 设置字体:

一、语法易错点

1. a, an的选择: 元音字母开头的单词用an,辅音字母开头的单词用a.

2. am , is , are的选择: 单数用is , 复数用are. I 用 am , you 用 are.

3. have , has 的选择: 表示某人有某物.单数用has , 复数用have. I ,you 用 have .

4. there is, there are 的选择:表示某地有某物,某人.单数用there is , 复数用there are.

5. some, any 的选择:肯定句用some, 疑问句和否定句用any.

6. 疑问词的选择:what (什么) who (谁) where (哪里) whose (谁的) why(为什么)when(什么时候)which(哪一个)how old (多大) how many (多少)how much(多少钱)

二:形容词比较级

当我们需要对事物作出比较时,需要用到比较级.比较级的句子结构通常是:

什么 + 动词be (am , is , are ) + 形容词比较级 + than(比)+ 什么 ,如:

I'm taller and heavier than you. (我比你更高和更重.)

An elephant is bigger than a tiger. (一只大象比一只老虎更大.)

形容词的比较级是在形容词的基础上变化而来的,它的变化规则是:

① 一般的直接在词尾加er ,如 tall - taller , strong - stronger ,

② 以e结尾的,直接加r ,如 fine – finer ,

③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改y为i再加er,如funny - funnier

④ 双写最后的字母再加er,如big – bigger, thin – thinner ,hot – hotter

☆注意☆

比较的两者应该是互相对应的可比较的东西.

典型错误:My hair is longer than you.(我的头发比你更长.)

比较的两者是我的头发,你(整个人),那么比较的对象就没有可比性.

应该改为:My hair is longer than yours. 或My hair is longer than your hair.

三:动词过去式

 

动词的过去式的构成规则有:

 

A,规则动词

① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play,stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

B,不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate , see – saw , have – had , do – did , go - went , take - took , buy - bought , get - got , read - read ,fly - flew , am/is - was ,

are - were , say - said , leave - left , swim - swam , tell - told , draw - drew , come - came , lose - lost , find - found , drink - drank , hurt - hurt , feel - felt

四:动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating

② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing

③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting

五、小学英语人称代词主格及宾格

人称代词分为主格和宾格,主格和宾格区别:主格和宾格汉语意思相同,但位置不同。

Eg:I(主格)"我"-- me (宾格)"我"

主格在陈述句中通常放句首,宾格通常放在动词后或介词后,也就是说宾格,不放在句首。

Eg :I have a new car.( I 主格)

Excuse me (me 宾格)

I ask him to go (him 宾格)

They sit in front of me (me 宾格)

主格(8个):I 我you你 he他 she她 it它 we 我们you 你们they他(她、它)们

宾格(8个):me我 you你 him 他her她 it它 us我们 you你们 them他(她、它)们

六:句型专项归类

1.肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,

如:I'm a student.

She is a doctor.

He works in a hospital.

There are four fans in our classroom.

2,否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,

如:I'm not a student.

He does not (doesn't) work in a hospital.

There are not (aren't) four fans in our classroom.

 

☆注意☆小结:

否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词 "not".有动词be的句子则"not"加在be后面,可缩写成"isn't,aren't",但am not 一般都分开写.没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(do,does,did),然后在它后面加上"not",你也可以把它们缩写在一起如"don't , doesn't , didn't ).这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .

3,一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用"yes",或"no"来回答.

如:Are you a student ?Yes, I am No, I'm not.

Is she a doctor? Yes, she is. No, she isn't.

Does he work in a hospital ?Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

 

☆注意☆小结:

一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,

①把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.

②没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(do,does,did)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.

这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的.

4,特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子.此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用"yes ,no"来回答.如:

What is this?

Where are you going?

Who played football with you yesterday afternoon?

When do you usually get up?

Why do you like spring best ?

How are you?

 

☆注意☆小结:

其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,如: how many(多少(数量)), how much(多少(钱)), how tall(多高), how long(多长), how big(多大), how heavy(多重)

例句:How many pencils do you have ?

How many girls can you see ?

 

how many 用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种搭配,

How many + 名词复数 + do you have 你有多少……

How many + 名词复数 + can you see 你能看见多少……

How many + 名词复数 + are there… 有多少……

七:完全,缩略形式:

1、简缩形式的变法:把倒数第二个字母,通常是元音字母变成' 但are除外,are要把a打成' 。Eg:he is=he's they are=they're

2、简缩形式和完全形式的汉语意思相同。

3、把完全形式变成简缩形式时,一定要注意第一个字母的大小变化。Eg:What is =What's

4、记住一个特殊变化;let's =let us 让我们(不要把' 变成i) 5、记?。簍hisis 没有简缩形式this's(错误)

 

5.常见的缩略形式:

I'm=I am he's=he is she's=she is they're=they

are you're=you are there's=there is they're=they are

can't=can not don't=do not doesn't=does not

isn't=is not aren't=are not let's=let us

won't=will not I'll=I will wasn't=was not


学习网(ycxwz.com)版权所有 【复制转发QQ好友】【 回顶部】 【收藏文章】【打印】【关闭
 >> 网友评论   文明上网,理性发言 共有条评论    
            

学习网是公益学习类网站,所有资料仅供学习者免费参考

版权所有·学习网 Copygight © 2009-2017
ytlongfa.com|ahyx99.com|sz-fLytop.com|zcd1688.com|chndeer.com|cqmyjj.com|
weibo.com|t.qq.com|blog.csdn.net|blog.163.com|www.terrytai.com|www.rec-phone.com|www.yjruipu.com|www.dxfeipin.com|www.pk10-pk10.com|www.tjdgoil.com|www.0755htk.com|www.kesitev.com|www.jsbeite.com |www.hxtxcn.com|www.jsjrltmmc.com|www.dxpwq.com